Hip and elbow dysplasia

Hip dysplasia (HD) is a term for a number of specific developmental and other abnormalities involving the hip joint. Dysplasia leads to serious health problems and, as such, is a serious cause for concern breeders and dog owners. It is one of the most common orthopedic diseases diagnosed in dogs and often leads to osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease). For the diagnosis of dysplasia insists primarily because it is a hereditary disease, and therefore ill individuals a great chance to transferred this problem to offspring, and therefore that this serious disease which spreads and multiplies in dog population.

Elbow dysplasia (ED) is a major health problem in many breeds of dogs. This disease is becoming more common diagnosed worldwide. Elbow dysplasia (ED) is the abnormal development of the elbow. This term encompasses a number of specific abnormalities (OCD, FCP, UAP) that occur in various caps places in elbow joint. They cause of impaired growth of the cartilage that covers the articular surface and the structures around the joint. These changes are the primary defects that subsequently lead to secondary osteoarthritic process.
The main cause of this disease is genetic. For this reason, the reviews that enable early detection of the disease to enable individuals with normally developed and healthy elbows are the most used in breeding. In this way reduces the occurrence of the disease in the population. Hips (HD) and elbow dysplasia (ED) is diagnosed by an x-ray. It is important to realize that some individuals are more resistant than others, and all show the same symptoms. Therefore observation can not give an adequate assessment of whether a dog is suffering from these diseases or not.

Gastric torsion

Dilatation and torsion (extension and rotation) of the stomach is a disease that occurs only in dogs, and in large breed dogs with deep thorax. There are descriptions of dilatation and torsion of the stomach in small breed dogs such as Pekingese, but in a much smaller percentage than in large breed dogs. The disease usually occurs in dogs between two and ten years old.

The real cause of this disease is not known, although there’s theory about the genetic predisposition of dogs to this disease, suspected to problems in anatomy and position of organs in the region, as well as problems in gastric motility affected dogs. Physical activity and way of nutrition a dog may be predisposing factors for the occurrence of this disease but they are not underlying cause.
Dilatation of the stomach should be distinguished from the overflow of the stomach that occurs when a dog eats too much. Puppies are tend to to overeat so that when they overflow the stomach occurs very often, but it comes to the development of symptoms of dilatation of the stomach. Dilated stomach in the affected dog is bloated because it is filled with large amounts of air and he can stay in position when the disease is called dilation of the stomach, or it can be turned around its longitudinal axis when the disease is called torsion or volvulus of the stomach. When gastric torsion occurs, the dog very quickly enteringin a state of shock, because the stomach of its altered position, putting pressure on vital blood vessels.

Rupture of the cranial crucial ligament

Rupture of the cranial crucial ligament (CCL) is the most common orthopedic problem in dogs. Unlike humans where the trauma is the primary cause of the disease, causing rupture of CCL in dogs is multifactorial. Regardless of the cause of the rupture, the essence of the instability of the knee joint which is the result of a series of cascading reactions. The cascade reactions including synovitis, degeneration of articular cartilage, development of periarticular osteophytes, capsular fibrosis, injury of the medial meniscus. Progressive osteoarthritis is as the end result of CCL rupture . Irrespective of treatment, however, the rate and extent of these changes can be reduced in an early surgical intervention.

OCD of the shoulder joint

Osteochondrosis is a disease characterized by a disturbance in the ossification of cartilage. Defects that occur lead to incongruity articular surfaces which leading to osteoarthritis. Males get ill more. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is still not fully clarified. In the majority of cases the lesions are most commonly found in a typical caudomedial third of the humeral head (the upper arm). Very rarely osteochondrosis lesions can be found at the caudal edge of the processus glenoid of scapula. The emergence of the lesion involves a genetic component, nutritional effects mechanical forces.

Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA)

Progressive retinal atrophy is hereditary disease that occurs in a variety of forms. The disease represents a degeneration of photoreceptors. Genetic damage leads to degeneration of retinal cells in the eye. First, it appears the damage sticks and night blindness. This is followed by damage to plugs and perform a fully blindness. The disease usually occurs in the age of the puppy or dog first year of life.